Glossary of Terms
Terminology and Quick Reference Guide
Cannabinol (CBN) is a cannabinoid isolated from the plant Cannabis that binds to the cannabinoid G-protein receptor CB2 (as opposed to CBD binding to CB1). It’s been shown to offer both immunosuppressive and anti-inflammatory benefits as its binding to CB2 mainly impacts a variety of immune cells (T-cells, B-cells, macrophages and dendritic cells). It’s also well known for its sedative effect and is perceived as a treatment option for those faced with sleep disorders as well as seizure disorders.
Cannabigerol (CBG) the “parent cannabinoid” in cannabis from which all the other cannabinoids (like CBD and THC) are derived. Most of the CBG in cannabis plants is broken down by enzymes which turn CBG into either THCA or CBDA. Those components are “activated” by light or heat energy to create THC or CBD, with less than 1% of CBG remaining behind. Its medical benefits mirror those of THC and CBD.
Cannabichromene (CBC) is also a derivative of CBG similar to the way TCH and CBD are produced. Key differences include the non-psychoactive nature so there’s no associated euphoria. CBC also binds very poorly to CB receptors. However, studies have shown it binds well to the receptors involved in pain perception – TRPV1 and TRPA1. When it binds to these receptors the body releases additional endocannabinoids that can add with pain treatment as well as an anti-inflammatory.
Cannabis plants produce over 400 compounds, and 60 of them are unique to the plant genus Cannabis. CBD is the acronym for cannabidiol, which is the compound that produces the medicinal effects seen from hemp oils. CBD is not psychoactive and produces no euphoric state. CBD studies do show a range of health benefits which include the treatment of some seizure types, anxiety, central nervous system disorders and even chronic pain and inflammation.
CBD oil is a non-psychoactive component used to treat various conditions. It has several methods of consumption including edibles (any food item made with CBD oil). It’s usually undetectable by the person eating the food, but it produces the same benefits as the raw oil. It can also be consumed as a water soluble powder, softgels, tinctures, and vape juice.
Consumers commonly start using CBD oils in tincture form. CBD tinctures have a lower concentration of CBD oils, so they can be used to ease into treatment. Patients can receive the full benefits of CBD simply by adding a small drop to their food or drink or by using sublingually. Tinctures come in variety of flavors, but can also be purchased with no flavor.
Endocannabinoids are small molecules which bind to activate cannabinoid receptors. Unlike phytocannabinoids, endocannabinoids are produced naturally in the body. They are produced from fat-like cells on demand and have a similar effect (and potential health benefit) to phytocannabinoids. This is seen in how endocannabinoids regulate the communication of neurons as well as the body’s anti-inflammatory response.
Flavonoids are a group of phytonutrients found in most plants and, along with carotenoids, are responsible for the vivid colors you see among fruits and vegetables. There are approximately 4,000 flavonoid subtypes (flavanols, anthocyanins, isoflavones, etc.) each offering a range of health benefits including antioxidants and anti-inflammatory properties.
Full-spectrum hemp oil
Full-spectrum hemp oil is easier to manufacture because it can be emulsified, dissolved, and homogenized more effectively. They are also more efficient than CBD isolates, because isolates are difficult to dissolve in water and pose a risk of having inconsistent delivery, which can be dangerous for recreational users and patients alike. Evidence supports better consistency, delivery and bioavailability with hemp oil.
Hemp is often confused with marijuana and the two terms are used interchangeably. Both are a part of the Cannabis family, but they are different in function, cultivation, and application. While marijuana is mainly used for recreational and medical purposes, Hemp can be found as an ingredient in dietary supplements, skin products, clothing and other accessories.
Hemp oil is manufactured through an extraction process. This can be done with any plant in the cannabis genus, however hemp oil is only produced from industrial hemp, which is used specifically for the dramatically low amount of psychoactive substances it contains. Hemp Oil has a wide range of commercial uses (plastic base alternative to petroleum, paint production, bio-fuel) and personal uses including some with health benefits (nutrient-packed cooking oil, moisturizer, food ingredient, soaps, etc.).
Hemp pellets are the edible form of CBD oil for pets. It can be mixed in with veterinarian formulated food that’s easily digestible for dogs. They can help with common canine medical conditions including pain, inflammation, stress, anxiety, age related issues, and overall health & wellness.
Isolate CBD has been used for several Investigational New Drug (IND) applications. Historically, CBD in a purified form is not allowed in consumer products by the Food and Drug Administration. Full-spectrum hemp oil with 80% CBD and no THC is legal, and can be used in a variety of medical applications as well as distributed in its raw form through tinctures and extracts.
Marijuana is a mixture of plant material and the dried flowers of Cannabis Sativa. Though it is often used recreationally, Marijuana also has a number of medical uses. It contains high levels of THC, which is the primary psychoactive component that gives patients the euphoric feeling generally associated with the drug. Resin is found mainly in the female plant, which growers harvest and dry. Marijuana also contains 500 other compounds, 100 of which are known as cannabinoids and directly relate to THC.
For hemp to be considered organic, it must be grown and cultivated under certain conditions. Organic hemp farms are located across the United States under strict regulations by the Department of Agriculture, the Organic Food Production Act, USDA organic regulations, and the National Organic Program.
There are 113 known phytocannabinoids in a cannabis plant including CBD and CBG. Phytocannabinoids attach to a cannabinoid receptor like a key connects with a specific lock. A cannabinoid unlocks a cannabinoid receptor and initiates changes in cells that can produce a wide range of medical benefits.
Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) is the most well-known cannabinoid taken from the cannabis plant, mainly because the psychoactive impact it has when binding with cannabinoid receptors. In addition to the psychoactive component there are known medicinal benefits similar to other cannabinoids such as treatment for PTSD and anxiety, inflammation, neuropathic and chronic pain, glaucoma and sleep disorders. Despite the benefits THC is still classified as a Schedule 1 controlled substance by the U.S. federal government.
Tetrahydrocannabivarin (THCV) is a psychoactive cannabinoid, but does not work in the same way as THC. It’s not found in high amounts in Cannabis plants, but it does have therapeutic effects for some debilitating medical issues. It’s mainly used to treat anxiety but it does invoke a euphoric high unlike CBD, which is not psychoactive and is also used to treat anxiety.
Terpenes are responsible for giving Cannabis its fragrant scent. Terpenes give each retail strain of Cannabis its distinct smell and usually is part of the reason for a strain’s name. The fragrant oils are secreted from the Cannabis plant’s resin glands, which also produce the THC, CBD, CBC and other cannabinoids produced by the plant.
Water Soluble CBD oil
CBD oil comes in a variety of applications, one of which is water soluble oil liquids or powders. Since oil and water do not mix CBD oil is transformed into a nanoemulsified liquid or powder that can be dissolved in water using nanoemulsion technology. This offers a higher bioavailability in the body and makes it more permeable to the skin in topical applications.