Glossary of Terms

Terminology and Quick Reference Guide

Broad Spectrum

Proprietary Genetics

Folium Biosciences maintains the truest of essences derived from our proprietary genetics and preserved as Trade Secrets in our Broad Spectrum oil and finished products. Our proprietary chromatographic purification process selectively removes Delta 9-THC and other undesirable impurities from our Full Spectrum hemp extract and purified oils.

Our proprietary processes do not expose the extracted products to high temperature or adverse conditions as with other manufacturers’ fractional distillation processes. Our latest methodologies preserve the plant’s terpene profile, eliminating potential degradation of cannabinoids and mitigating potential oxidation of other botanical compounds.

Cannabinol
Cannabis plants produce over 400 compounds, and 60 of them are unique to the plant genus Cannabis. Cannabinol (CBN) is a cannabinoid isolated from the plant Cannabis that binds to the cannabinoid G-protein receptor CB2 (as opposed to CBD binding to CB1).
Cannabigerol
Cannabigerol (CBG) the “parent cannabinoid” in cannabis from which all the other cannabinoids (like CBD and THC) are derived. Most of the CBG in cannabis plants is broken down by enzymes which turn CBG into either THCA or CBDA. Those components are “activated” by light or heat energy to create THC or CBD, with less than 1% of CBG remaining behind.
Cannabichromene
Cannabichromene (CBC) is also a derivative of CBG similar to the way THC and CBD are produced. Key differences include the non-psychoactive nature so there’s no associated euphoria. CBC also binds very poorly to CB receptors.
CBD Oil
CBD oil is a non-psychoactive component used to treat various conditions. It has several methods of consumption including edibles (any food item made with CBD oil). It’s usually undetectable by the person eating the food, but it produces the same benefits as the raw oil. It can also be consumed as a water-soluble powder, soft gels, tinctures, and vape juice.
Cannabidiol (CBD)
CBD is the acronym for cannabidiol, which is the compound that produces the medicinal effects seen from hemp oils. CBD is not psychoactive and produces no euphoric state. CBD studies do show a range of health benefits leading to many clinical trials in progress currently.
CBD Tinctures
Consumers commonly start using CBD oils in tincture form. CBD tinctures have a lower concentration of CBD oil, so they can be used to ease into treatment. Patients can receive the full benefits of CBD simply by adding a small drop to their food or drink or by using sublingually. Tinctures come in variety of flavors, but can also be purchased with no flavor.
Endocannabinoids
Endocannabinoids are small molecules which bind to activate cannabinoid receptors. Unlike phytocannabinoids, endocannabinoids are produced naturally in the body. They are produced from fat-like cells on demand and have a similar effect (and potential health benefit) to phytocannabinoids. This is seen in how endocannabinoids regulate the communication of neurons as well as the body’s anti-inflammatory response.
Flavonoids

Flavonoids are a group of phytonutrients found in most plants and, along with carotenoids, are responsible for the vivid colors you see among fruits and vegetables. There are approximately 4,000 flavonoid subtypes (flavanols, anthocyanins, isoflavones, etc.).

Full-spectrum hemp oil
Full-spectrum hemp oil refers to a complete hemp plant extract with Delta 9-THC, cannabidiol, minor cannabinoids, and terpenes.
Hemp
Hemp is often confused with marijuana, as they both belong to Cannabis Sativa L. species, and the two terms are used interchangeably. However, they are different in composition (chemotype) and their applications. While marijuana is mainly used for recreational and medical purposes, Hemp can be found as an ingredient in dietary supplements, skin products, clothing, building and other accessories.
Hemp Oil
Hemp oil is manufactured through an extraction process. This can be done with any plant in the cannabis genus, however hemp oil is only produced from industrial hemp, which is used specifically for the dramatically low amount of psychoactive substance (THC) it contains. Hemp Oil has a wide range of commercial uses (plastic base alternative to petroleum, paint production, bio-fuel) and personal uses, including some with health benefits (nutrient-packed cooking oil, moisturizer, food ingredient, soaps, etc.).
Hemp Pellets
Hemp pellets are the edible form of CBD oil for animals. It can be mixed in with veterinarian formulated food that’s easily digestible for horses, pocket pets, farm animals, birds, and more.
Isolate CBD
Isolate CBD (>99% CBD by potency) has been used for several Investigational New Drug (IND) applications. Historically, CBD in a purified form is not allowed in consumer products by the Food and Drug Administration.
Marijuana
Marijuana is a mixture of plant material and the dried flowers of Cannabis Sativa. Though it is often used recreationally, marijuana also has a number of medical uses. It contains high levels of THC, which is the primary psychoactive component that gives patients the euphoric feeling generally associated with the drug. Resin is found mainly in the female plant, which growers harvest and dry. Marijuana also contains 500 other compounds, with greater than 100 being from the cannabinoids family.
Organic Hemp
For hemp to be considered organic, it must be grown and cultivated under certain conditions. Organic hemp farms are located across the United States under strict regulations by the Department of Agriculture, the Organic Food Production Act, USDA organic regulations, and the National Organic Program.
Phytocannabinoid
There are 113 known phytocannabinoids in a cannabis plant including CBD and CBG. Phytocannabinoids attach to cannabinoid receptors inside the human body as a key fits into a lock. A cannabinoid unlocks a cannabinoid receptor and initiates changes in cells that can produce a wide range of beneficial processes.
THC
Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), or Delta-9-THC, is the most well-known cannabinoid taken from the cannabis plant, mainly because the psychoactive impact it has when binding with cannabinoid receptors. In addition to the psychoactive component there are known medicinal benefits similar to other cannabinoids such as treatment for PTSD and anxiety, inflammation, neuropathic and chronic pain, glaucoma and sleep disorders. Despite the benefits THC is still classified as a Schedule 1 controlled substance by the U.S. federal government.
Tetrahydrocannabivarin
Tetrahydrocannabivarin: Tetrahydrocannabivarin (THCV) is a psychoactive cannabinoid, but does not work in the same way as THC. It’s not found in high amounts in Cannabis plants.
Terpenes
Terpenes are responsible for giving Cannabis its fragrant scent. Terpenes give each retail strain of Cannabis its distinct smell and usually is part of the reason for a strain’s name. The fragrant oils are secreted from the Cannabis plant’s resin glands, which also produce the THC, CBD, CBC and other cannabinoids produced by the plant.
Water Soluble CBD
CBD oil comes in a variety of applications, some of which are water soluble liquids or powders. Since oil and water do not mix, CBD oil is transformed into a nanoemulsified liquid or powder that can be dissolved in water to manufacture stable finished products or for direct consumption. This offers higher bioavailability (and enhanced efficacy) and makes it more permeable to the skin in topical applications.
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